Global Warming: We have been benefiting from it for millenia!
Global Warming A Solution.

Global Warming: We have been benefiting from it for millenia!


How it Works and why it is crucial to life on earth.

Planet Earth enjoys 30OKelvin ( 30 Celsius or 86 Farenheit ) global warming naturally from the current heat retaining properties of the atmospheres' gasses.  All gasses retain heat when heated and all gasses release that heat when the heat source disappears. All matter, whether liquid, solid or gas will absorb heat when thus exposed and release it when the heat source is removed. Our atmosphere loses heat overnight only to be recharged on its next exposure to sunlight the next day. If earth did not have an atmosphere its daytime temperature would be the same as the moons':
390OKelvin ( 117 Celsius or 242 Farenheit, water boils at 100 Celsius or 212 Farenheit  )   and its night time temperature would be:
100OKelvin ( -173 Celsius -280 Farenheit, water freezes at 0 Celsius or 32 Farenheit );  With the current mix of atmospheric gasses we have an average temperature of :
288OKelvin ( ~15 Celsius or 59 Farenheit ) :
By adding 'greenhouse gasses: namely Carbon Dioxide and others to the atmosphere we increase the capacity of the atmosphere to retain heat from day to night and back to day again. We are burning millions of years of stored carbon deposits in the space of a couple of centuries. The loading of the atmosphere with such an enormous heat sponge may eventually lead to a runaway greenhouse effect as afflicts Venus. If we reach the tipping point then there is no amount of funding that will ever reverse the damage.  The biosphere is in a delicate  balance and has been so for millenia. Greenhouse gasses force heat retention and force its accumulation; incrementally at first but cumulatively and relentlessly.


The purpose of any renewable system is to match and excel all other current carbon and nuclear based energy systems.
Carbon systems are going to be very hard to beat in terms of their capacity to deliver energy in a condensed package and their portability in both liquid and gas forms.
I did think that natural gas would be an excellent alternative to all forms of coal and petroleum fuels but it is a carbon based fuel.  Along with global warming there is one much larger danger: The acidification of the oceans. Already many mollusks and other ocean life forms that require a calcium carbonate shell are having difficulty forming those shells due to the increasing acidity of the oceans. With more Carbon Dioxide emitted into the atmosphere these life forms will die. If we kill these life forms then we turn the oceans into a hot sewer. All sea life will die either from the effects of acidification, loss of food chain and warming.
 

While we are still locked into the carbon fuel cycle, we need to commence installing renewables on a huge scale.  Wind and Solar work on utilising huge areas for energy collection. These are easily installed and connected to the grid.
Installation of renewables needs to go at a cracking pace!  Current global energy production, from all sources is 15TerraWatts.  Daily we receive over 174,000 TerraWatts from the sun, of which up to 86,000 Terrawats is available for renewable energy production. Ignoring this huge energy source is foolish.

Utilisation of renewables will provide more energy well into the future reliably and with certainty and with minimal harm to our precious biosphere.

In Short the new energy economy will require two main threads:
Distributed Energy production
and
Distributed Energy storage.

Revision of the Motor Car.

Both easily achievable. Both must be started now.

Politics.
The power of vested interests makes a mockery of all democracies. Lobbyists and influence peddlers using bribery, in all its guises, and verbal denial to grasp onto their funding source requires brave and courageous leadership to oppose. It appears politicians are easily bought, but the damage to the biosphere, that their corruption and sycophancy to vested interest, is irreversible if allowed to continue; There is no way to repair a planetary biosphere once we cross the tipping point; There is no amount of money that will fix it once we have crossed the 'Rubicon'. No fines or incarceration of the corrupt will reverse the damage.
We cannot afford the luxury of 'denial'.

Workforce.
Renewables create a huge amount of work.
They are labour intensive in their installation and maintenance, but low maintenance in their operation.
More work will emanate from generating and storing energy from renewables than from Carbon based fuels.
It's just that the profits will be more broadly spread within communities than in the hands of a small group of super wealthy Carbon supply companies: Oil companies, coal supply companies and nations.
The time to act is now!


A process for the  cessation of the utilisation of carbon based fuels for energy and transport needs to be adopted.
A methodology for this is proposed:

A tax on all carbon fuels based on $US0.0.2cents per MegaJoule ( MJ ) of  fuel value.
Proceeds from this tax to be spent in the following manner:

Distributed Electrical Energy Generation.
Distributed Electrical Energy Storage.
Augmentation of Carbon fuel sources with non greenhouse gas fuels.
Nuclear.
Magic Solution.
Transport
Clean Coal
 
 

Distributed Electrical Generation:
 
Fund proceeds need to go to:

Wind:
 

The installation of Wind Farms of all sizes wherever possible.
The best locale is offshore on continental shelves where the water depth is not prohibitive to their installation and where the wind farms can be located close to inhabited areas.
Installation of Wind Farms in wind corridors: Pickens Plan and similar.
Installation of Wind generators on every electric railway pylon; these do not have to be large capacity generators and the following are quite apt for this.
Installation of 1.0 - 5.0 Kw wind generators on every imaginable locale available.

Tapping into just 1% of available global wind energy would deliver 8.7 TerraWatts of power. That's equivalent to: 8,700  x  1GW Nuclear or Coal fired power stations!


Wave:

Installation of Carnegie industries type wave energy conversion arrays, also offshore.
There are many other wave systems and these too should be looked at also.


NO OTEC.

OTEC ( Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ) will only assist in warming the oceans by extracting cool water from deep depths and then using this to cool warm water, which is used to evaporate a coolant such as freon or similar. All this does is take advantage of global warming, temporarily, and begin to warm the oceans further exacerbating global warming.


Solar.

High feed-in buyback systems for all households and compulsory 5Kw systems for all new houses; similar scaling for larger buildings. Buyback system to remain inplace until the owner achieves full buyback price and then a feed in tariff sufficient to cover maintenance and replacement costs;  such a second level feed in tariff to enable funds to be set aside for panel replacement and maintenance.
Large arrays: Mirror systems, etc in areas where there is extensive and reliable sunlight. Solar energy falling on Earth each day is in excess of 85 PetaWatts; we ignore this 'free', clean energy source at our peril!
Solar Windows.
 
Tall buildings have extensive surface area exposed to the sun. Replacing all the glass panels with panels that are able to generate electricity should be mandatory for all such buildings. Solar windows are still transparent and very inefficient: 1% - 3% while still allowing the transmission of light. However such is the surface area that they would present to the sun they would supply an extensive amount of electricity on a grid interactive basis. Similarly, all windows in all new buildings could be thus specified for those surfaces facing the sun.


Biomass.

Biomass as a source of energy should be discouraged.  Utilising arable land to create biodiesel minimises the amount of land for food production and makes humans in third world countries less valuable than a liter of fuel; Priority should be given over to algae to fuel and manure biogas systems at all animal intensive farm locales. Biodiesel requires extensive use of carbon fuels for its planting, cultivation and refinement not to mention fertiliser! it is not carbon neutral, it pollutes more than it saves!
Geothermal.
 
There is extensive geothermal capacity to meet capacity on a regional basis for up to 200 - 300 years..
Tidal.
 
Here too there is extensive capacity where tides exceed 4.0meters. Utilising this resource is grossly under done now.
Distributed Electrical Storage.
 

A system of Distributed electrical storage is essential for augmenting the peaks and troughs of renewable energy generation systems. Sufficient capacity needs to installed to ensure a stable and reliable supply. The following are some options:
 

Batteries:
 

Site for current Battery technology click here

There are several batteries currently operational that can be used for energy storage.
At the top of the list is the Vanadium Redox Battery and similar "flow batteries".
These already work in tandem with windmills on King Island Tasmania and in many other locations delivering a supply reliability >80%.
This is better than any other supply reliability from any other energy source anywhere.
Installation of VRB and similar, extensively adjunct to wind, solar and wave farms; extensively throughout all suburban neighbourhoods and industrial estates would see renewables deliver a reliable base load better than any other system of electricity production.

Sodium Sulphur batteries are beginning to be used in 20MW installations in Japan and elsewhere as a load leveling storage and supply system.

Lithium Sulphur batteries also approach high energy densities but only limited use in high current load leveling use to date.

Lead Acid batteries: Still the best source of electrical supply to diesel electric submarines and easily adapted to neighbourhood and industrial sites for load leveling and storage.
 

ZincAir and AluminiumAir batteries are still in the research mode and still not here! We need to work with what works.

Lithium for larger systems.
Nickel Metal Hydride require too pollution  in their manufacture and should be phased out or the production process cleaned up.
 

House Battery.
Each Dwelling to have its own storage battery: up to 100Kw is not unreasonable and would occupy space similar to a refrigerator.


Mechanical systems:
 
 

Where supply exceeds demand into the grid excess energy is diverted to one of three  mechanical systems:
Compressed Air: Underground caverns ( old mines in non pervious rocks ) are already being used for compressed air storage, though inefficient they are ideal when an electrical storage system is unable to cope with a surge in excess power input into its grid and rather than divert the excess power to resistor banks or ground, it can be diverted to any one of three mechanical systems of which the compressed air and reverse hydro is ideal. Both react immediately to excess flow, compressed air does not require as high an overload as reverse hydro, and both can be tapped when input into the grid drops, or requires further augmentation.
Reverse Hydro requires a cascade of hydro installations whereas compressed air can be located anywhere.

Flywheels: These are excellent load levelers and used extensively in Paris by local telecom companies to maintain constant voltage and power supply within their telephone network ( though these are smaller than envisaged here ). Augmenting these into a neighbourhood system complementary to the VRB or other Battery Boxes assists these to supply reliable and safe supply both voltage and stabilised supply frequency.

Augmentation systems.

Augmentation systems comprise fuels that can be included in the combustion fuel supply that assist efficient burning of carbon based fuels with minimal or negative contribution to CO2 emissions.
Principally: Biomass waste or Hydroxy gas.
Biomass waste, pulverised, can be included in fuel augmentation for fluidised bed combustion chambers of coal fired power stations and are essentially carbon neutral.

Hydroxy gas is the best possible augmentation to any combustion process.
Utilised on trucks the hydroxy gas augmentation can improve mileage with fuel reductions between 15% to as high as 38% ( some claim more ).

Augmentation fuel in a carbon combustion process with Hydroxy gas utilises several advantages:
Coal fired power stations, instead of utilising resistor banks for load shedding can direct surplus supply to hydroxy gas generation and this injected along with the powdered coal into the fluidised combustion chamber enables less coal to be used, delivers a cleaner flue gas emission with less particulates and less carbon dioxide.
Hydroxy gas works by electrolysing water in a potassium of sodium hydroxide bath; the Hydrogen and Oxygen come off together and the gas is then injected into the air intake where it assists the carbon fuel to burn more efficiently. It does this by having a very high flame speed ( in excess of 3000 ft/min ) and the resulting high temperature steam acts as huge membrane over which the carbon fuel coalesces, expanding its surface area, and hence burning more efficiently.  There is no magic here! its just plain chemistry.
 

Diamonds in the exhaust.
Installing magnetrons ( as used in a microwave oven ) to envelope a motor vehicles exhaust system delivers the cleanest exhaust of all systems to reduce pollution. It also converts most of the hydro-carbon exhaust gasses to diamond dust! Consequently one tank of petrol will produce diamond dust residue with a value greater than the vehicle's value. Why this is not extensively used can only be put down to vested interest in the diamond trade. The diamond dust would be excellent for use in many consumer goods and industrial processes; it would be useless as a jewel except for purposes of adding glitter!
This process is used extensively in highend audio where a diamond membrane is emplaced over a titanium dome for high end tweeters.
 
 
 

Nuclear.

Fission
Fission reactors have been the mainstay of nuclear power; However if all the worlds electrical power was derived from Uranium alone, there would only be enough for 9 years at the most; and then a huge disposal problem with the waste.
Pebble bed reactors seem the safest way forward if Nuclear is to become more extensively used and in particular designs that utilise Thorium in a slow breeder process.

Fusion.
Despite its promise of unlimited energy for all time the technology and science of achieving ignition is still to be achieved. Iter and other projects may achieve this but it is still a long way away. Some say 15 years others Never!



 
MAGIC SOLUTION!
There is no single solution to generating electricity in a post carbon fuel world; Unless we achieve ignition in fusion we are perpetually reliant on renewables.
Transport.
Renewable energy would have to supply capacity to make Hydrogen for transport fuel and for recharging electric vehicles.
Liquid Hydrogen will be the fuel of choice for Jet plane propulsion; this has been known for over 35 years and easily adapted.
Extensive outlay of public transport infrastructure must now proceed.
Carbon Sequestration
This is a travesty against future generations. There is no guarantee that any CO2 thus stored will not find another way out to leak back into the atmosphere. It is a crime of global proportions against future generations not yet born. It should be stopped. The moneys thus made available for the installation of renewables.
Clean Coal and ETS ( Emmissions trading system or cap and trade )
Pure Fiction!

Revision of the Motor Car.
A radical decision on the operationability of the motor car and similarly powered transport needs to be done. Essentially all motor vehicles after a given date: 2013; must be either totally electric or plug in hybrid electric.
A Hybrid will burn little or no fuel when it is stationary in traffic; All hybrid electrics must have a minimum range of 80km on full charge.
 
ITS NOT ALL BAD NEWS.
 
Some Radical solutions:

Geothermal.
Correctly implemented and drilling down to 10 - 20 km into the earths hot spots will supply all the energy we need for millenia. Going deeper will offer more.

ExtraTerrestrial
Huge solar panels near geostationary orbit will supply All the power we need forever! Tethering and transmission are technologies to be resolved.
The commencement of our own Dyson Sphere.
 

In Summary.
The science of global warming is simple.
The engineering to install renewables is simple.
The politics is a nightmare!
 
 

But then again, what further proof do you need that global warming is real:




Services.
Bocchino Technologies // is available for determining which system and collection of systems best suits client needs.
The above is a summary based on my experience in this sector for over 30 years.


Return to Bocchino Technologies Main Page.